Concepts

Read here about what is understood by the key concepts in the Qualifications Framework for Lifelong Learning.

The Qualifications Framework for Lifelong Learning uses a number of concepts with a specific meaning. Read more about what is understood by the key concepts:

  • Qualification
  • Learning outcomes
  • Knowledge, skills and competence
  • Degrees, certificates and certificates for supplementary qualifications


Qualification

A qualification is a degree, a certificate or a certificate for a supplementary qualification that is officially validated and documents a learning outcome that has been acquired. The degrees and certificates/diplomas must have been awarded pursuant to an Act or an executive order and must have been quality assured by a public authority in the Danish education system.

The concept of qualification stresses the result of a learning process rather than the length or content of an education programme.

The Qualifications Framework for Lifelong Learning provides a comprehensive overview of the qualifications in the Danish education system. In practice, it is the officially validated degrees and certificates that are included into the framework. Degrees and certificates document the learning outcome achieved by a person who has completed a given educational course.

Specific examples in Denmark are a master’s degree, a Professional Bachelor degree, a Journeyman’s Certificate and an Adult Vocational Training Certificate.


Learning outcomes

Learning outcomes are what the learner knows or is able to do as the result of a learning process.

The Qualifications Framework uses the term learning outcome in connection with a qualification. The learning outcome of a qualification is what a person with a given qualification is expected to know and be able to do.

The concepts of knowledge, skills and competence are used to describe a learning outcome.

Thus, a concrete description of a learning outcome in the Qualifications Framework states the knowledge, skills and competence a person with a given qualification is expected to have.


Knowledge, skills and competence

The level descriptors in the Qualifications Framework for Lifelong Learning are based on the concepts of knowledge, skills and competence.

Knowledge

Knowledge means knowledge and understanding of a subject. Knowledge contains the following aspects:

  • The type of knowledge involved: knowledge about theory or knowledge about practice; knowledge of a subject or a field or within a profession.

  • The complexity of this knowledge: the degree of complexity and how predictable or unpredictable the situation is in which this knowledge is mastered.

  • Understanding: the ability to place one’s knowledge in a context. For example, understanding is expressed when one explains something to others.

Skills

Skills means what a person can do or accomplish. Skills contains the following aspects:

  • The type of skill involved: practical, cognitive, creative or communicative.

  • The complexity of the problem solving: the problem solving this skill is to be applied to and the complexity of this task.

  • Communication: the communication that is required, the complexity of the message, to which target groups and with which instruments.

Competence

Competence is about responsibility and autonomy and states the ability to apply knowledge and skills in a work situation or in a study-related context. Competence contains the following aspects:

  • Space for action: the type of work and/or study-related contexts in which the knowledge and skills are brought into play, and the degree of unpredictability and changeability in these contexts.

  • Cooperation and responsibility: the ability to take responsibility for one’s own work and the work of others and the complexity of the cooperative situations in which one can engage.

  • Learning: the ability to take responsibility for one’s own learning and that of others.


Degrees, certificates and certificates for supplementary qualifications

Degrees

Degrees are awarded in the higher education area. A degree represents a documented and evaluated result of a learning process on a higher education level.

Examples: the Master’s degree, the Bachelor’s degree, the Diploma degree and the Academy Profession degree.

Certificates

Certificates are awarded in the greater part of the ordinary education system upon completion of education/training, for example the Leaving Examination of the Primary and Lower Secondary School, the Upper Secondary School Leaving Examination or a Journeyman’s Certificate. A certificate represents a documented and evaluated result of a learning process.

Examples: upper secondary qualification certificates, vocational education and training certificates and adult vocational training certificates.

Certificates for supplementary qualifications 

Certificates for supplementary qualifications are awarded in the area of adult and continuing education. A supplementary qualification can be:

  • A supplement to a qualification

  • Part of a qualification

  • A qualification that does not build on a qualification on an underlying level.

Examples: Higher Preparatory Single Subjects, Basic Vocational Education and Training, Adult Vocational Training or preparatory courses.

last modified Feb 15, 2016